- Section 5.2 - Shows that U.S. recruiting teams' IDI scores positively correlate with their success in meeting diversity benchmarks in hiring, but does not go into detail about how they used the IDI.
- Section 5.3 - In a study abroad program, increases in students' IDI scores correlated with increases in knowledge of host culture, decreased intercultural anxiety, increased intercultural friendships, increased satisfaction with the study abroad program. Minimal details about the use of the IDI provided.
- Graduate Thesis
- Links to full paper
- Discusses the relationship of students' study abroad goals to change in IDI scores
Selzer, R.A., Srivastave, R. & Huckleberry A. (2020). Using the Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) with first-year, pre-med students: Impacting the human side of healthcare. Handbook of Research on the Efficacy of Training Programs and Systems in Medical Education.
- Links to abstract only
- Abstract: The Intercultural Development Inventory® (IDI®) and accompanying reflection prompts were administered to 40 pre-med students. Findings revealed students overestimated their intercultural understanding and 97.5% had monocultural mindsets. Six themes demonstrated how the IDI® can be used to develop critically reflective future healthcare providers: Reframing Reactions, Lack of Exposure to Other Cultures, Lack of Cultural Self-Awareness, Bi-cultural Identity and Fitting In, Healthcare Connections, and Diversity and University Opportunities.
- Links to full article
- Abstract: Intentional efforts for teacher education candidates to expand their worldview throughout their program of study can lead to growth in their intercultural development as measured by the
Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) (Hammer & Bennett, 1998). This study examines the
impact of utilizing the Inter-Cultural Action Plan (ICAP), a results-guided self-designed action
plan, on the developmental orientation (Bennett, 2011) of the candidate’s intercultural
development as measured by the IDI. Significant impact on a candidate’s developmental
orientation is identified when candidates take ownership of their experiences in the form of an
action plan that includes coursework and out of class opportunities.
Lokkesmoe, K. J. , Juchinke, K. P. & Ardichvilli A. (2016). Developing cross-cultural awareness through foreign immersion programs: Implications of university study abroad research for global competency development. European Journal of Training and Development, 40(3), 155-170.
- Links to summary only
- Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the efficacy of foreign immersion programs in terms of increasing cross-cultural awareness among university students in business, accounting, human resources and agriculture. Pre- and post-IDIs were used, along with data on academic performance and personal assessments. Students overestimated their own intercultural competence, and IDI scores did not increase as a result of participating in exchange programs.
- Abstract: The purpose of this study was to assess the cultural competency of students, faculty, and staff from a small Midwest-university college of nursing. Phase one included the initial administration of the Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI®) over a two year period with analysis of the pre-test results. Phase two includes the implementation of cultural development interventions with a post-test IDI® survey and is currently in process. Overall, the IDI® was a valuable self-reflection tool to assess cultural development. At the individual level, it has allowed for self-reflection and awareness to the reality of cultural development, attitudes, and values. At an institutional level, the aggregate results provided a framework for the examination of department policies, procedures, and curriculum design with the ultimate goal of graduating a more culturally competent nursing workforce to serve the greater community.
Utilizing the Intercultural Development Inventory® to develop intercultural competence
Assessing Intercultural Development Pre- and Post Education Abroad.
BACKGROUND: There is a need to identify objective measures for growth in the development of intercultural competence for students who engage in education abroad programs of study. The Intercultural Development Inventory® (IDI) identifies the participant's orientation on the Intercultural Development Continuum™ (IDC).
METHOD: Students completed the IDI 4 weeks prior to departure and 8 weeks upon completion of an education abroad program. Students were debriefed by an IDI-qualified administrator.
RESULTS: Group results suggest that students perceived they were further along in the IDC than their actual developmental orientation score revealed.
Effectiveness of a developmental curricular design to graduate culturally competent health practitioners.
With the goal to facilitate cultural competency development of students enrolled in graduate-level health professional education, this study examined the effectiveness of a curricular program guided by the Intercultural Developmental Continuum (IDC) as measured by the Intercultural Developmental Inventory (IDI). The IDI was administered to 17 occupational therapy (OT) students and a control group of 25 non-OT health professional students upon matriculation into their respective programs of graduate study and again upon completion of 3 years of study. OT students participated in a cultural curricular design guided by the IDC, while the control group participated in cultural study not guided by the IDC. Though OT students did not show a significant change in overall developmental orientation mean scores from pre-test to post-test (t = 0.847, p = 0.41), the results indicate that the designed intercultural curriculum increased intercultural competence among those OT students who began their program with the monocultural mindset of polarization (an "us vs. them" evaluative viewpoint) and moved to the interculturally transitional mindset of minimization (recognizing cultural commonalities and elimination of the "us vs. them" mindset). The control group showed a significant decrease in developmental orientation mean scores at post-test (t = 6.1, p < 0.001). No significant group or group by baseline interaction effects were found when comparing overall post-developmental scores adjusting for baseline (F = 2.4, p = 0.131). The curriculum design as guided by the IDC, though it did not significantly increase overall cultural competency of OT students, appears to have mitigated a decrease in competence. Results suggest that the cultural challenges that students face appear to be considerable and, without targeted, integrated intercultural preparation, can overwhelm new health professionals' intercultural capability.
Working toward culturally responsive sexuality education: Recommendations for becoming a culturally responsive teacher.
It is human nature to perceive things differently and subsequently to define those differences as either good or bad. How does this dichotomous way of thinking affect an educators approach to culturally responsive teaching, specifically when teaching sexuality education? Drawing from interviews of 10 sexuality educators who received above average intercultural competence scores, this study explored educators' perspectives on culturally responsive sexuality education, and describes the approaches interculturally competent sexuality educators used to navigate perceived differences in learning environments. In addition, recommendations for how to develop sexuality educators' intercultural competence are also discussed.
Examining intercultural sensitivity and competency of physician assistant students.
Training in intercultural competency for health care professionals is necessary to bring greater balance to the disparity currently found among those needing health care. The purpose of this study was to determine what, if any, improvements in cultural competency were measurable in physician assistant (PA) students as they matriculated, using the Multicultural Awareness, Knowledge and Skills Survey-Revised as a pretest upon program entry and again as a posttest on the final day of the program. Ninety-three PA students from four successive classes graduating from a private midwest college between 2003 and 2007 participated in the pre and post measurements. All students were enrolled in specific didactic studies and clinical experiences in cultural sensitivity and competency. The results demonstrated significant improvement in knowledge (pretest 2.63, posttest 2.76, p=0.001) and skills (pretest 2.63, posttest 2.93, p<0.001) for all classes combined. The Intercultural Development Inventory was administered to the most recent graduating class to further explore these results. This cohort showed the highest scores (group mean 3.58 on scale of 1-5) in the Minimization developmental stage, which emphasizes cultural commonality over cultural distinctions. Enhanced curricular instruction such as exploring cultural assessment methods and controversies in health care differences, combined with increased clinical experiences with diverse cultures, are recommended to help move students past the minimization stage to gain greater cultural competency.
Jankowski, J. (2019). A construct validation argument for the Intercultural Development Inventory. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 52(2), 75-89.
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/07481756.2018.1497428 (Only an abstract)